Hoel & Colleagues (2001)

Total cost of work-related stress = sick absence + early retirement + staff turnover costs + grievance and labour legal costs + damage to equipment/production due to accidents or errors of concentration + increased premiums for workers compensation + reduced performance + loss of reputation and customer dissatisfaction + brand damage + poor investor relations

Worldwide estimates of the causes of absenteeism estimate that between 30% and 60% of all absence is stress related.